Jiang, Ke , Hansen, Curtis , Goertzen, Leslie .
Geographic distribution and phenology of North American grapevines (Vitis spp.).
Label data from Grapevine (Vitis spp.) specimens are surveyed through large scale online data mining of North American herbaria. Specimens are georeferenced and used in range estimation, which is conducted by several algorithms. North American wild grapevine distribution, biodiversity and habitat are analyzed based on the estimated ranges and environmental data, which helps predict additional locations and target future collection efforts. According to current best estimates of grapevine phylogeny the ranges suggest several allopatric speciation events. Phenological records, especially flowering time, are investigated in terms of sample statistics, latitudinal clines, temporal-spatial variations and relationship with climate. Strong latitudinal clines of flowering time are revealed in widespread species but not in local species, suggesting stronger local adaptations than natural selection imposed by changing climate along latitude. Considering the latitudinal variation, flowering time differences among grapevine species are still present, which may serve as primary reproductive isolation barriers. Vitis mustangensis and V. girdiana show early and late flowering times independent of any factors, suggesting key mutations underlying their unusual phenology. Combined with advanced geographic and statistic analysis, flowering time and range are incorporated into a model to test the presence of reinforcement for flowering time, and we discovered stronger flowering time differences between sympatric than between allopatric populations. The first complete survey of grapevine specimens produced high quality range estimations, which can be combined with phylogeneny to infer wild grapevine biogeography. The test for reinforcement lays the foundation for further investigation of the role of flowering time in grapevine species formation and maintenance. Discovery of unusual phenology provides material for further analyses of the genetic basis of flowering time in grapevine species. This study also integrates geographic information system, biodiversity informatics, phenological statistics and systematics in a synthetic approach to studying plant evolution.
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1 - Auburn University, Department of Biological Sciences, 101 Life Sciences Building, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, United States
2 - Auburn University, Freeman Herbarium (AUA), 101 Life Sciences Building, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, United States
3 - Auburn University, Department of Biological Sciences, 101 Life Sciences Building, Auburn, Alabama, 36849-5407, USA
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Topics
Date: Monday, July 28th, 2008
Time: 4:00 PM